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Adolescent Family Life Program (AFLP)

Publish Date

August 2023

Preview of Program Implementation

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Program Implementation
July 1, 2017–June 30, 2020

The Adolescent Family Life Program (AFLP) is a strengths-based case management program for expectant and parenting youth. Following the AFLP Positive Youth Development (PYD) Model, case managers work with youth one-on-one towards four program goals: increasing access and utilization of needed services; increasing social and emotional support and resiliency; empowering youth to cultivate personal autonomy to make informed decisions about their sexual and reproductive health; and strengthening youth knowledge and self-efficacy for career and educational attainment. This brief focuses on AFLP implementation in 21 sites in 17 counties between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020.

Participant Characteristics at Program Entry

3,051 Youth

Gender1

Male 13%. Female 87%

Parenting Status2

Parenting 48%. Expecting 52% 

Preferred Language3

87% speak English. 13% speak Spanish.. 0.5% speak other language.  

Age4


16% are age 15 and younger. 57% percent are age 16 to 17. 27% are ages 18 and older. 

Race and Ethnicity5

85% are hispanic. 7% are white. 5 percent are black. 2 percent are asian or pacific islander. 1 percent are multi-ethnic. 0.3 percent are other. 

Data source: Among 3,051 continuing and newly enrolled youth who received any services between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020. Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system 9/15/21. 1Excludes 1 youth with missing data. 2Parenting status was reported for youth with completed screening, baseline assessment or pregnancy outcome; excludes 136 youth with missing data. 3The language screening was completed in was used as a proxy for preferred language. Information available for youth screened after July 1, 2018. 4Excludes 14 youth with missing data. 5Race and ethnicity were reported for youth with completed baseline assessments (n = 2704). Excludes an additional 29 youth with missing data.

Program Enrollment

Program participant smiling 

 

Between 2017 and 2020, 3,211 youth were referred to AFLP (see Figure 1)1 . Most youth were referred from school (25%), a medical provider (23%) or a social service provider (15%). Upon referral, AFLP staff attempted to contact youth to screen for program eligibility. Youth 18 years of age and younger are eligible for AFLP if they are expecting, parenting, working on gaining or regaining custody of their child(ren), or are a partner in pregnancy and/ or parenting2 . Among those eligible, 71% enrolled, spending an average of 13.2 months in the program. Active youth are defined as those who participated in at least one visit after the enrollment visit.

Figure 1. Program flow for youth referred to AFLP between 2017 and 2020

Figure 1. Program flow for youth referred to AFLP between 2017 and 2020  3,211 referred to AFLP 2,941 screened for eligibility (92% of referred youth screened) 2,757 eligible among screened (94% of screened youth eligible) 1,948 enrolled among eligible (71% of eligible youth enrolled) 1,802 active youth (2+ visits) (93% of enrolled youth became active) 

Data source: Among 3,211 youth referred between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020. Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system, 9/15/21. 1 Excludes 367 youth at 5 sites who did not have an opportunity to complete 1 year in the program. 2 Program eligibility was expanded in 2020 to include youth up to age 21.

Services Provided

Program participants

The AFLP PYD model is organized into four program phases, each consisting of a series of core activities and focused conversations completed through program visits. Case managers meet with youth twice a month with the total number of visits varying by phase (see Figure 2). Each visit includes tailored content and activities designed to help youth develop and use their strengths and skills to help navigate life’s challenges, build healthy and supportive connections, and identify and work toward life goals. In addition to program visits, case managers contact youth via phone, text, or in-person drop-ins to provide brief check-ins, visit or resource reminders, or to drop off needed supplies.

All contacts
96,619
Program Visits
39,339

Data source: Among 3,051 youth who received any service between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020. Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system 9/15/21.

Figure 2. Average number of visits per program phase, among youth who completed the phase

Figure 2. Average number of visits per program phase, among youth who completed the phase  Phase 1 - 4.9  (4 required) Phase 2 - 8.1 (8 required) Phase 3 - 7.5 (6 required) Phase 4 - 4.4 (3-6 required) 

 
 

Data source: Analysis limited to youth who completed the phase prior to the COVID-19 stay at home order on 3/20/2020 (Phase 1, 1,129; Phase 2, 438; Phase 3, 252; Phase 4, 207). Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system 9/15/21.

Youth reflection on visits with her case manager:

“I knew I was comfortable. I was safe. She respected the boundaries of when I didn’t want to talk, what I didn’t want to talk about at that moment, and she allowed me to open up on my own and I could say, I really did love and appreciate that. And now I’m just like, floating through motherhood pretty easy. I would talk about my fears as being a mom, and she would give me tips and guides on how to fix it.”

— AFLP Focus Group Participant, August 2020

Program Retention and Completion

AFLP is designed to be completed in 12 months but builds in flexibility for youth to remain in the program for up to 24 months, as needed, to meet goals (e.g., returning to school, accessing housing). To examine program retention and completion, we followed the experience of 1,583 youth as they progressed through the program phases1 (see Figure 3). Overall, 36% of youth either completed the program or were still enrolled in the program at the end of the follow-up period2 . Among youth who left AFLP prior to completing the program, most exited during Phase 2.

Youth who completed AFLP spent an​
average of 19.6 months in the program.

Figure 3. Number of youth who completed, remained enrolled or exited AFLP by phase

Figure 3.  Number of youth who completed, remained enrolled or exited AFLP by phase   Phase 1 - 1,330 completed phase, 244 exited PYD Phase 2 - 751 completed phase, 25 still in PYD, 563 exited PYD Phase 3 - 555 completed phase, 55 still in PYD, 141 exited PYD Phase 4 - 378 completed phase, 117 still in PYD, 60 exited PYD

Data source: Among 1,538 youth referred between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020. Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system 9/15/21. 1 Excludes 219 youth (12.2% of active youth) who exited the program during the reporting period and returned after 90 days or more. 2 Followup was 1 year after reporting period end.

Impact of COVID-19

Following the COVID-19 stay-at-home order issued in March 2020, AFLP agencies quickly adapted service delivery from in-person settings (home, office, or community visits) to virtual settings (phone or video visits; see Figure 4). Agencies also began prioritizing supports to help youth meet basic needs such as obtaining essential supplies for families, learning activities for children, and resources for mental health support. These adjustments were reflected in shorter visits and a shift from more program visits to more non-visit contacts (e.g., text messages, supply drop-off) (see Figure 5​​).

Figure 4. Visit setting before and during COVID-19

Figure 4. Visit setting before and during COVID-19  Before COVID-19 most visits were home visits (75% home visits) During COVID-19 most visits were virtual visits (91% virtual visits) 

 
 

Data source: Among 3,051 youth who received any service between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020. Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system 9/15/21. Other in-person visits included community, office, school, or unscheduled visits.

Figure 5. Duration of visits and number of contacts by typ before and during COVID-19

Figure 5. Type of contact and duration of visits before and during COVID-19  Visits were shorter during COVID-19 - Before COVID-19 visits were 60 minutes - During COVID-19 visits were 45 minutes  Other contacts took the place of visits - Visits before COVID-19 - 1.5, visits during COVID-19 - 1.0 - Non-visit contacts before COVID-19 - 1.0, non-visit contacts during COVID-19 - 1.4 Data source: Duration of visits was examined among 3,051 youth who received any service between July 1, 2017 and June 30, 2020. The mean number of contacts, by type of contact, was examined among 1,583 youth. Visits are meetings to discuss program content, whereas contacts are quick check-ins such as text messages or supply drop-offs. Extracted from AFLP Penelope data system 9/15/21

Youth reflection on AFLP during COVID-19 Stay at Home Order: 

“The experience has been kind of different… when you would see them face-to-face, like they would talk to you about you know personal things, about your health, and then we would do like this activity book. And I feel like that activity book helped me out a lot. And now you know, just talking through FaceTime or on the phone, it’s just different.”

— AFLP Focus Group Participant, August 2020

Summary

  • Over 3,000 continuing and newly enrolled youth received services in AFLP during the 2017–2020 funding cycle and AFLP staff provided nearly 40,000 program visits during this time. 
  • Approximately 1,800 youth were active in the program in 2017–2020, completing at least one visit after the enrollment visit. Among these youth, 36% finished the program or were still active 1 year after the end of the reporting period. Most youth who left AFLP prior to completing the program exited during Phase 2.
  •  During the COVID-19 state of emergency, case managers adjusted their approach to support youth, engaging in more non-visit contacts and shorter, virtual visits to meet youth’s immediate needs.​​​​​​​

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