Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI)
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections that patients develop during the course of receiving health care. They can happen due to treatment in hospitals and other healthcare facilities including outpatient surgery centers, dialysis centers, long-term care facilities such as nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and community clinics. They can also occur during the course of treatment at home. HAI can be caused by a wide variety of common and unusual bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
HAI are the most common complication of hospital care, occurring in approximately one in every 25 patients. The following HAI occurring in hospitalized patients are required to be reported to the California Department of Public Health by all California general acute care hospitals:
Information and Current Reports
Clostridium difficile Infection (C. difficile, C. diff, CDI, CDAD) may develop due to exposure to Clostridium difficile bacteria and use of antibiotics during healthcare treatment. Clostridium difficile infections cause diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis. Patients can be exposed to this bacterium through contaminated surfaces or the spores can be transferred on unclean hands of others. For more information about CDI, see CDI Information Page.
Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) is a primary laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection in a patient with a central line. For more information about CLABSI see CLABSI Information Page.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bloodstream Infection (BSI): Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections. More severe or potentially life-threatening MRSA infections occur most frequently among patients in healthcare settings. For more information about MRSA, see MRSA Information Page.
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Bloodstream Infection (BSI): Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are specific types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin, the drug often used to treat infections caused by enterococci. Enterococci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract, and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can sometimes cause infections. Most vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections occur in hospitals. For more information about VRE see VRE Information Page.
Surgical Site Infection (SSI): A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. Surgical site infections can sometimes be superficial infections involving the skin only. Other surgical site infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. For more information about SSI, see SSI Information Page.
CDPH publishes 2015 HAI data via a web page that includes a summary report of key findings and public health actions, data tables designed to help the public interpret hospital-specific findings, and technical reports for each infection type that include detailed information on statistical analysis methods and risk adjustment. View the current published annual HAI report page or below for quick access:
For the 2016 Healthcare-Associated Infections in California Hospitals Annual Report, see the following:
Healthcare-Associated Infections Annual Report, 2016 (PDF)
2015-2016 Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Annual Report and Interactive Maps also available