Influenza and Pneumonia Mortality Trends 2000-2007 DS 10-10000
Male and Female Populations
Even though both male and female influenza and pneumonia age-adjusted death rates declined significantly between 2000 and 2007, males demonstrated a consistently higher age-adjusted death rate than females. A trend analysis showed a statistically significant downward trend in influenza and pneumonia deaths for both males and females in California during this period.
The age-adjusted death rate among females in 2007 was 16.6, which represents a 36.4 percent decrease from a rate of 26.1 in 2000. The age-adjusted death rate among males in 2007 was 22.0, which denotes a 35.5 percent decrease from a rate of 34.1 in 2000.
For additional information about trend analysis, see Technical Notes. Refer to Table 3 (PDF) for detailed influenza and pneumonia age-adjusted rates and 95 percent confidence intervals.
Age-Adjusted Death Rate by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
Influenza and pneumonia age-adjusted rates were generally higher for males than females within the same race/ethnic groups. In examining overall trends by sex and race/ethnicity, there were year-to-year fluctuations in age-adjusted death rates by sex and race/ethnic groups. The age-adjusted rates in the parentheses show the range of minimum and maximum annual rates per 100,000 over the study period. Black males consistently had the highest mortality rate every year during the period ranging from (32.6 to 43.8), while Asian females continued to have the lowest rate (14.2 to 20.6). Except for Black males, trend analysis for each sex and race/ethnic group showed a statistically significant downward trend in influenza and pneumonia deaths for California during this period.
Refer to Table 3 (PDF) for detailed influenza and pneumonia age-adjusted rates and 95 percent confidence intervals for race/ethnic group populations by sex. Rates for American Indian, Pacific Islanders and Two or More Races were unreliable during one or more years in the study, so their rates are not discussed here. However, the rates are displayed in Table 3 (PDF).
Age-Specific Death Rates by Sex
The actual risk of dying from influenza and pneumonia increased with age. For those age groups who had reliable data during the study period, age-specific death rates for both males and females became greater with increasing age. For males and females aged 35 and older, the age-specific rates decreased in 2007 relative to 2000. For males, the age group 45 to 54 showed the largest age specific rate decrease of 37.3 percent from 2000 to 2007. For females, the age group 35 to 44 reflected the largest age-specific rate decrease of 52.9 percent between 2000 and 2007. With the exception of the 35 to 44 age group in 2005, female age-specific rates were lower than male age-specific rates for all age categories and years, and this difference generally became greater with increasing age.
Annual age-specific death rates are displayed in Table 2b (PDF)for males and Table 2c (PDF) for females.
Crude Death Rate by Sex
During this period, the actual risk of dying per 100,000 population, or crude rate, ranged for males form 15.9 to 21.7 and females from 18.6 to 27.3.
Crude death rates show the actual rate of dying in a given population, but because populations will vary in age distribution, crude rates do not provide a statistically valid method for comparing sex or race/ethnic groups, geographic areas, or multiple reporting periods.7 Please see age-specific or age-adjusted death rates for comparisons.
Number of Deaths by Sex
Females accounted for more influenza and pneumonia deaths than males in each study year. Of California’s 62,523 total influenza and pneumonia deaths from 2000 through 2007, females accounted for 54.3 percent of all deaths from influenza and pneumonia, whereas male accounted for 45.7 percent of influenza and pneumonia deaths. From 2000 to 2007, the number of California resident deaths from influenza and pneumonia decreased from 8,355 to 6,522, a decrease of 21.9 percent. Male deaths decreased by 684 or 18.6 percent from 3,683 to 2,999. Female deaths decreased by 1,149 or 24.6 percent from 4,672 to 3,523 (Table 1a-1c ).
Age Distribution of Deaths by Sex
The average age for death due to influenza and pneumonia for males was 79.3 years and 83.3 years for females during this period. This means that, on average, males died four years earlier than females. As indicated by the chart below, females who die from influenza and pneumonia are generally older in age than males.