Influenza and Pneumonia Mortality Trends 2000-2007 DS 10-10000
Sex Differences within Race/Ethnic Groups
Influenza and pneumonia age-adjusted rates were generally higher for males than females within the same race/ethnic groups. In examining overall trends by sex and race/ethnicity, there were year-to-year fluctuations in age-adjusted death rates by sex and race/ethnic groups. The age‑adjusted rates in the parentheses show the range of minimum and maximum annual rates per 100,000 over the study period. Black males consistently had the highest mortality rate every year during the period, ranging from 32.6 to 43.8, while Asian females continued to have the lowest rate (14.2 to 20.6). Except for Black males, trend analysis for each sex and race/ethnic group showed a statistically significant downward trend in influenza and pneumonia deaths for California during this period.
Refer to Table 3 (PDF) for detailed influenza and pneumonia age-adjusted rates and 95 percent confidence intervals for race/ethnic group populations by sex. Rates for American Indian, Pacific Islanders and Two or More Races were unreliable during one or more years in the study, so their rates are not discussed here. However, the rates are displayed in Table 3 (PDF).
Age-Specific Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
Age-specific death rates for all race/ethnic categories grouped by sex were higher in older age groups. For more specific age-specific death rates, please see the Table 2b (PDF) for males and Table 2c (PDF) for females.
Crude Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
During this period, the actual risk of dying per 100,000 population, or crude rate, ranged for race/ethnic groups as were follows:
• Asians: males 14.9 to17.8, females 13.4 to 15.2
• Blacks: males 18.6 to 22.1, females 19.4 to 22.7
• Hispanics: males 5.8 to 7.4, females 7.4 to 8.6
• Whites: males 24.7 to 34.5, females 29.4 to 45.1
Annual influenza and pneumonia crude death rates by sex and race/ethnic group are also presented in Table 2b (PDF) for males and Table 2c (PDF) for females under the “All Ages” column.
Crude death rates show the actual rate of dying in a given population, but because populations will vary in age distribution, crude rates do not provide a statistically valid method for comparing sex or race/ethnic groups, geographic areas, or multiple reporting periods.7 Please see age specific or age-adjusted death rates for comparisons.
Age Distribution of Influenza and Pneumonia Deaths by Race/Ethnicity and Sex
On average, men died earlier from influenza and pneumonia than women in all race/ethnic groups. Men of Two or More Races had the lowest average age of influenza and pneumonia death and died an average of approximately 21 years earlier than White women, the longest surviving group. The average ages of influenza and pneumonia death by sex and race/ethnicity for 2000 through 2007 were as follows:
• American Indian: males 73.8 years, females 76.1 years
• Asian: males 80.7 years, females 82.6 years
• Black: males 72.9 years, females 78.4 years
• Hispanic: males 72.9 years, females 78.6 years
• Pacific Islander: males 64.6 years, females 71.4 years
• Two or More Races: males 63.6 years, females 75.2 years
• White: males 80.8 years, females 84.5 years
The percentage of deaths that occurred to people under age 65 varied, and some groups experienced more deaths at younger ages than other groups. Specifically, the proportion of influenza and pneumonia deaths before age 65 was:
• More than 30 percent among Pacific Islander males and females, and males of Two or More Races.
• Between 20 and 30 percent Black males, American Indian males, Hispanic males, and Two or More Races females.
• Between 10 and 20 percent Black females, American Indian females, and Hispanic females.
• Less than 10 percent Asian males and females, White males and females.
The two charts below shows the age distribution of influenza and pneumonia by race/ethnicity and sex.