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Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs)

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections that patients develop during the course of receiving healthcare treatment for other conditions. They can happen following treatment in healthcare facilities including hospitals as well as outpatient surgery centers, dialysis centers, long-term care facilities such as nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and community clinics. They can also occur during the course of treatment at home. They can be caused by a wide variety of common and unusual bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

HAIs are the most common complication of hospital care, occurring in approximately one in every 25 patients. The following HAIs occurring in hospitalized patients are required to be reported to the California Department of Public Health by all California general acute care hospitals: 

Information and Current Reports 

  • Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) -- is a primary laboratory confirmed bloodstream infection in a patient with a central line at the time of (or two days prior to) the onset of symptoms and the infection is not related to an infection from another site. For more information about CLABSI see CLABSI Information Page and for CLABSI report see 2014 CLABSI Report Page
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bloodstream Infection (BSI) -- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infections. More severe or potentially life-threatening MRSA infections occur most frequently among patients in healthcare settings. For more information about MRSA, see MRSA Information Page and for the MRSA report see 2014 MRSA and VRE Bloodstream Infection (BSI) Report Page
  • Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Bloodstream Infection (BSI) -- Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are specific types of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin, the drug often used to treat infections caused by enterococci.  Enterococci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract, and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can sometimes cause infections. Most vancomycin-resistant Enterococci infections occur in hospitals. For more information about VRE see VRE Information Page and for VRE report see 2014 MRSA and VRE Bloodstream Infection (BSI) Report Page
  • Clostridium difficile Infection (C. difficile, C. diff, CDI, CDAD) -- Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that may develop due to the prolonged use of antibiotics during healthcare treatment. Clostridium difficile infections cause diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis. Clostridium difficile can cause gastrointestinal infection; patients can be exposed to this bacterium through contaminated surfaces or the spores can be transferred on unclean hands of others. For more information about CDI, see CDI Information Page and for the CDI report, see 2014 CDI Report Page
  • Surgical Site Infection (SSI) -- A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. Surgical site infections can sometimes be superficial infections involving the skin only. Other surgical site infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material.  For more information about SSI, see SSI Information Page and for SSI data release, see 2014 SSI Report Page 
  • For the 2014 Healthcare-Associated Infections in California Hospitals Annual Report, see the following:

     Healthcare-Associated Infections in California Hospitals Annual Report, 2014: Key Findings and Public Health Actions

    TABLES:       C. difficile, C. diff. CDI Tables                CLABSI Tables     

      MRSA BSI & VRE BSI Tables                Surgical Site Infections Tables


    For the 2014-2015 Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Annual Report, click here

    Last modified on: 5/18/2016 1:50 PM